I’ve just come across some documents about my maternal grandfather, Alfred Kessler. Here’s his Austrian ID card:
This document says (according to Google Translate)
Israeli Religious Community
Confirmation for submission to the military authority
It is hereby certified that Alfred Kessler, born on 2 January 1896 in Vienna, according to the documents presented here, is a full Jew.
My mother remembers that in autumn 1938, her dad was sent by his boss to a job in England. So he, my grandmother (Gertrude), my 8-year-old mother (Lena Elisabeth)) and her 4-year-old sister (Ilse Wilhelmina) escaped by the skin of their teeth – my mother says she didn’t even have time to go home and collect her doll. Gertrude had a German passport (this was after the Anschluss) but Alfred only had his jewish ID. En route, a border guard said to her
You can go, but you can leave the dirty jew here.
He got out, but didn’t last long – he died in February 1944.